There is no curing any of these: one must be quick to recognize these diseases and then discard the affected plants and protect the rest.

by Margery Daughtrey, Senior Extension Associate
LIHREC of Cornell University

THE DRIVING MARKET

Plant diseases are spread every year, the pathogens are infecting, destroying leaves and roots. Farmers have no choice and must discard the affected crop and plants. The Long Island HREC of Cornell University warns that there are four pathogens in particular growers should be mindful in 2017.

According as the UN Comtrade Database, the total global export values of fungicides (HS.Code 380892) at $9.12 billion dollars in 2015. The total export volumes at 991,188 tons. The global import status of fungicides at $9.10 billion dollars and 877,879 tons. China owned the export market share 4.76%, rose by 12.22% CAGR from 2007 to 2015. The global trade date has shown the strong market trend, especially in today, eco-friendly and bio-based sources are the key market labels.

Chart 1. China Export Values of Agriculture Fungicides, million dollars

The registration of fungicides by MOA of China also shows a high speed on driving increasing demands. Numbers of 9,432 products were registered on ICAMA. Wettable powders (WP) is the key formulation form at a 38.2% market share. And only a third of registered products are composite formulas, two third of formulas are single dose at 65.13%. The registration situation in China also bring new issues that too many agriculture ingredients of fungicide are focus on field crop and research & development on formula should increase input at more range of areas.

2017 Numbers of Registered Fungicide in China
2017 Numbers of Registered Fungicide in China

CHALLENGE OF FUNGICIDE RESISTANCE

In China, the registered fungicides are focus on field crop, such like rice, wheat, peanut, cotton and rape. Field crop owned a 33.9% market share on the target crop application. 65% of formulas are single dose and 35% of formulas are composited.

Tabel 1. The main active ingredients of registered fungicides in China, ICAMA, 2017

Active Ingredients Registered Number Registered Number, %
 Mancozeb  430  16%
 Thiophanate Methyl  350  13%
 Difenoconazole  322  12%
 Tebuconazole  274  10%
 Sulfur  250  9%
 Validamycin  236  9%
 Propiconazole  212  8%
 Dimethomorph  201  8%
 Chlorothalonil  191  7%
 Prochloraz  166  6%

There is a case study, Downy mildew disease is easy spreading. In 2011, impatiens downy mildew is reported in MA, CA, IL, IN, NY, MN and WI. And appeared again in January 2012, disease was seen on landscape impatiens in Florida. This destructive foliar disease is causing complete defoliation or plant collapse, and had been confirmed in 33 states in US. In early November 2012, the new cycle of disease was being seen in south Florida and signaling the potential start for the 2013 season.

At that time, the fungicides, such as Protect DF™, FenStop™, Adorn™ were the fungicides which effected strongest preventive efficacy. The products were usual composited by the active ingredients, such like mancozeb, fenamidone, fluopicolide. They compound are of excellent solubility and low toxicity, but have toxicity to fish and human skin. Some ingredients easy being resolved into  toxic gases.

Figure 1. Heavily infected garden impatiens with severe defoliation and bare stems
Figure 1. Heavily infected garden impatiens with severe defoliation and bare stems. Photo by Dr. Yonghao Li, CAES, USA

Over the long term, as the policies and legislation trend to more and more strict on the environment protecting, and the diseases resistance, appear years and years. Bio-based monomers would be the key part of formulas, mixed with synthetic active ingredients. It is a new way to agriculture disease control.

NOTES. Protect DF™ is a trademark of Nufarm. FenStop™ is a trademark of OHP, Inc.. Adorn® is a registered brand of VALENT.

BIOFUNGICIDE AT THE COMPETITION STAGE

Terpene based ingredients are the new activated monomers for biofungicide, even most of plants contains a large number of terpenes. In usual the manufacturers would purchase pine oil and turpentine bio-based from pinus for cleaning application. Terpenes result a strong antibacterial effect. Following this way, researcher found that α-(L)-Terpineol (Purity 90%) can against the plant pathogens (Kaiping Lai, 2007), such like tomato bacterial wilt, against for 24 hours, the diameter of bacteriostatic circle reduced from 90.0mm to 13.3mm under 3.0 mg/ml.

Table 2. The target plant pathogens of bio-based monomers.

Plant Diseases Bio-based Ingredients
α-Terpineol Terpinen-4-ol α-Terpinene Eugenol
Ddowny Mildew
Damping off Disease  √  √
Powdery Mildew
Rice Blast
Leaf Spot
Anthracnose  √
Venturia Inaequalis
Spotted Leaf Disease
Early Blight  √  √  √
Ring Spot
Botrytis  √
Fusarium Head Blight
Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum  √
Seedling Blight
Verticillium Wilt

Monomers were extracted from different of biosource showed the targeted antibacterial effects. Eugenol and Terpinen-4-ol from Cumin Seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.) resulted the activated for sclerotinia sclerotiorum, early blight, verticillium wilt and damping off disease (Linfeng Hu, 2008). Especially eugenol, against 94.17% of rape sclerotinia sclerotiorum, 91.24% of tomato early blight, 78.48% of cotton verticillium wilt under 200 mg/L. And Terpinen-4-ol results effects on 71.68% of rice damping-off and 77.36% wheat damping-off.

For business, terpenes as bioactive compounds have been sold on commerce products. Such like Nu Film 17™ owned by MILLER CHEMICAL®, or 2BY™ and 2EY™ owned by EDEN®, Lachlan (K) Hawk® 16CS. Our individual brand, PINEYE™ has success applied on sunguard and wetting dispersant.

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