Semi-synthetic ingredients are one of important raw materials on flavor & fragrance industry. The terpenes based is a huge secondary metabolites family in plants, mainly includes Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes and Diterpenes.Foreverest™ Terpenes Based Ingredients resource from pine trees, camphor trees and eucalyptus trees. Such like α-Pinene and β-Pinene are the main ingredients of Gum Turpentine from pines. China has rich species resource and mature process, which is the material export county in the world.

For the flavor & fragrance manufacturing, the common synthetic routes were identified as ring-opening of cyclic monomers, such like Linalool, Geraniol, Dihydromyrcenol, Lauryl alcohol or Neroli. Monoterpene alcohols, such like Terpineol. Or other cyclic compounds, such like Camphor and Isobornyl. The products can synthetic as materials and intermediates for downsteam routes, such like Bornyl Acetate, Isobutyl Acetate, Allocimene, Ambergris Ketones, etc.

Terpenes are a large family organic compound in plants, which are derived from units of isoprene. The basic molecular formuae are multiples of (C5H8)n. They often have strong and fresh smelling, the derivatives and downsteam products can used in perfumery and flavors.

Terpenes can be classified as Hemiterpenes (C5H8), Monoterpenes (C10H16), Sesquiterpenes (C15H24), Diterpenes (C20H32), Sesterterpenes, Triterpenes (C30H48), Sesquarterpenes (C35H56), Tetraterpenes (C40H64), Polyterpenes and Norisoprenoids. They are a huge organic group come from natural resources. Renewable and sustainable. In addition the application of flavors and fragrances, terpenes also can used in many industries.

Some terpene chemicals are commodity materials, such like Dipentene (Limonene) can used in dispersants and solvents. Terpinolene can used as surface preservatives. α-Terpineol can applied for inks and electronic industries.

Some terpenes have low specific rotation, high purity, appeared light colour and smelling strong. Which are supplied as synthetic materials or intermediates on flavor and fragrance industry. Such like β-Phellandrene, Isolongifolens or Isocitronellene.

Due to the low toxicity for human and animal health and the natural toxicity to pests, terpenes also are the main organic ingredients of biopesticides.

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Forest Areas and Oleoresin Volume of Tapping Pines in China
Source: The 6th Forecast Report of Forest Resources in China, CAF 2007
  • Tapping Area
  • Tapping Volume

Pinus in China

According as the 6th Forecast Report of Forest Resources in China (CAF, 2007), the dominant species are P.massoniana, P.yunnanensis, P.kesiya var.langbianensis and P.latteri. Total tapping age areas were counted as 22.46 million hm2, volumes were counted as 108.84 million m3. Yunnan is the largest area and volume of pine forest in China.

Annual pine oleoresin storage was counted as 180.6×104 tons, P.massoniana by 77.5%, P.yunnanensis by 14.5%, P.kesiya var langbianensis by 8.0%

Eucalyptus Oil in China

E. maculata Hook (As known as Lemon Eucalyptus) and E.globulus Labill are the main species of Eucalyptus for industrial export. The original provinces in China are Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou and Chongqing.

According as export volume report from China Customs, the export volume of Eucalyptus was reached by 9,775 tons, volume of export to ASEAN up to 4,952 tons, volume of export to EU up to 2,257 tons.

Specy Oil Productivity
 Eucalyptus Radiata  3.0% to 5.0%
 E.maculata Hook  0.8% to 1.0%
 Folium Eucalypti  about 2.0%
 Eucalyptus Bush  1.5% to 2.0%
 Bahamas Eucalyptus Wood  2.0% to 2.5%
 Lemon Eucalyptus  about 1.7%
 E.globulus Labill  about 1.0%
Export United Price of Eucalyptus in China
Unit: $ USD/Pound
  • Cineole
  • E.globulus Labill Oil
The Means and Standard Deviations of Leaf Oil From Cinnamomum
Source: Study on the geographic variation of leaf oil of Cinnamomum camphora, 2006
Longitude Subarea %, Oil Content %, Content of main composition
1,8-Cineole Linalool Camphor Safrole
by Longitude subarea
J1 1.02±0.50 6.85±9.53 57.99±34.79 1.15±1.09 0.04±0.06
J2 1.13±0.65 10.44±17.28 36.93±33.35 4.80±13.97 2.65±9.60
J3 1.38±0.48 4.62±12.85 72.19±33.31 2.13±7.41 1.72±9.00
J4 0.44±0.24 7.35±17.80 19.17±26.81 0.73±0.99 9.18±18.88
by Latitude subarea
W1 1.90±0.30 0.19±0.14 95.34±1.10 0.16±0.20 0.08±0.00
W2 0.78±0.72 6.50±13.41 30.87±32.78 3.80±13.55 7.52±15.99
W3 1.36±0.48 5.14±12.88 69.76±33.56 2.88±9.05 0.74±5.17
W4 0.79±0.56 13.18±22.53 30.23±36.30 2.31±9.94 8.04±19.42

Cinnamomum in China

Cinnamomum was original grown in southern of China, natural contains Camphor, Safrole, Cineole, TerpineolCamphene, Pinene, Nerol and Linalool.

Taiwan and Jiangxi are the largest forest areas. Cinnamomum can identified by chemical types as Linalool, Camphor, Cineol, Iso-nerolidol and Borneol.


 138-86-3  Pinus 95.0%
  • Substitute for D-Limonene
  • Solvent for Coatings
  • Dispersant for petrochemicals
  • Material of fragrances
 Terpinolene  586-62-9  Pinus 20.0% to 95.0%
  • Industrial solvents
  • Preservative
  • Fragrance for softs
 Longifolene  23787-90-8  Pinus 60.0%, 80.0%, 85.0%
  • Crude oil for flotation
  • Material of flavors and resins
  • Woody fragrance
 Isolongifolene  1135-66-6  Pinus 60.0% or 80.0%
  • Material of fine fragrances
  • Biopesticides
 β-Phellandrene  555-10-2  Pinus 65.0% or 80.0%
  • Biopesticides
  • Material for fragrance
 Eucalyptus Terpenes  84625-32-1  Eucalyptus 90.0% to 95.0%
  • Equivalent for high purity α-Pinene
  • Material for fragrance
 Sabinene  3387-41-5  Cinnamomum 70.0% or 75.0%
  • Material for fragrance
 γ-Carene  13466-78-9  Pinus 95.0%
  • Flavor
  • Solvent
  • Intermediate for agriculture and medicine
  • Material of fragrance
 δ-Terpinene  99-85-4  Pinus, Eucalyptus 95.0% to 99.0%
  • Material for lemon and peppermint essence
  • Biopesticides
Isocitronellen  85006-04-8
  • Material for fragrance
α-Terpineol  98-55-5  Pinus, Eucalyptus 90.0% to 99.0%
  • Flavor
  • Fragrance ingredient for personal cares
  • Biopesticides
  • Solvent for ink
  • Intermediate for medicine
  • Solvent for electronic
Dihydro Terpineol  58985-02-7  Pinus 95.0%
  • Fragrance ingredient of lilac
  • Solvent for hydrogen peroxide
  • Flavor
  • Material for cleaning
Terpinen-4-ol  562-74-3  Pinus 95.0% to 99.0%
  • Flavor
  • Fragrance ingredient for personal cares
  • Rose flora of essence
  • Biopesticides
Terpineol  8000-41-7  Pinus MU/PG
  • Natural ingredient for disinfectants
  • Material for fragrance
  • Resins solvent
  • Solvent for Electronic
δ-Terpineol  7299-42-5  Cinnamomum 95.0% or 99.0%
  • Biopesticides
  • Intermediate for medicine
  • Solvent for electronic

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