What is D-limonene?
D-Limonene: A Cleaner from Nature
D-limonene is extracted from citrus peels discarded from juice production. It has grown popular due to its excellent solvency for cleaning and degreasing, as well as its environmental claims of being all-natural and biodegradable.
Why is the D-limonene price so volatile?
The harvest of Citrus matters
Because it is derived from citrus fruits, almost all D-limonene sold in the United States comes from either Florida or Brazil, depending on which of those places is “in season” at the time. Weather, unstable markets and volatile political conditions in South America have caused prices to fluctuate wildly. Droughts and unseasonably wet weather have resulted in fruit with thinner peels. Since much d-limonene comes from the peels, less was produced.
According as ALEXANDRA WEXLER, the journalist of WSJ says in 2014, “That would be a 15% decrease from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s final 2013-14 estimate of 104.4 million boxes, which was the lowest output in 29 years. If the 2014-15 crop comes in as Ms. Steger has forecast, it would be the lowest production since 1964-65, when Florida’s output was just 82.4 million boxes. Each box weighs 90 pounds.”
Annual production of d-limonenes and citrus terpenes worldwide is approximately 36 million gallons. Only 10 percent of this is available to companies that produce d-limonene cleaners and degreasers. Also, since d-limonenes are a citrus by-product, supplies depend on another production stream (foods and food additives).
What is dipentene?
Pine-based Racemic limonene
Dipentene is a by-product in the production of terpineol or champhene. It is mainly composed of terpene hydrocarbons wtih a refreshing pine, lime aroma. The excellent solvency of dipentenes, along with its wetting and dispersing properties make it suitable for use in rubber processing and reclaiming, in paint and varnish applications, in cleaners, waxes and polishes and in oil drilling operations.
Dipentene: A Low-cost Substitute for D-limonene?
Dipentene could be used in most applications as a substitute or extender for Citrus d-Limonene.
Dipentene is mainly composed of terpene hydrocarbons and the content of D, L-Limonene is around 20%~50%, which make it possible for dipentene to be used as a substitute or extender for Citrus d-Limonene in many applications, such as household and industrial cleaner fragrance and deodorizer, solvent carriers for paints and adhesives, an excellent replacement for toxic chlorinated solvents, degreasing and wax removals, pesticides and oil extraction. Dipentene is a least expensive alternative to citrus d-limonene with high solvency.