Even customers prefer to choose organic food today, the pesticide residue is still an important issue in many regions. In China, the safety percentage of vegetables is 97.4% ( CMOA, 2011). According as the historical statistics that farmers sprayed pesticides once time per 10 days in April and increase sprayed per 5 or 7 days in the summer. And then slow down the spraying time to every 15 days in October. (Dong Qinli, 2009) The leaf vegetables often retains the highest rate of pesticide residue, because the leaves have large surface area and touch with pesticides directly.
A study was reported that 45% of farmers would consider the safety interval, 38% of farmers may consider the intervals, but 17% of farmers would not consider this issue. More than 55% of farmers said that the higher toxicity the better efficacy. (Tong Xia, 2014)
Re-spray pesticides is a main way on residue issue, such as on a rainy day, the rains can clean away the pesticides from the surface of leaves, if farmer spraying before rainy they will spray again when the sun comes out.
In the performance test, the deposit rate of PINEYE™ Emulsion is 6.6623 mg/cm2. When farmers sprayed pesticides mix with PINEYE™ Emulsion, the piney resin polymer can increase the extended area of pesticide on the surface. After sprayed for an hour, polymer emulsion goes dryness and forming an elasticity film. The film wraps up liquid in the microcapsule and defense water cleans away the pesticide or other addition agent directly.
The key ingredient of PINEYE™ Emulsion is pinolene based polymer, which is natural friendly to crops, flowers and fruits. Compered with other adjuvants, PINEYE™ Emulsion shows 44.50 degrees of contact angle in the test, the value is better than the organic based competing product, who shows 55.48 degrees of contact angle. The lower angle contact means the better wetting function if you use PINEYE™ Emulsion as the dispersant agent.
Soil is an ecosystem that PH meter was effected by the fertilizer using. An overdoes rate using and the low using efficiency may destroy a health soil ecosystem. One of important issue is soil acidification. For example on fertilizer N, only 28.3% of using efficiency for rice, 28.2% for wheat and 26.1% for maize. The rate of fertilizer N are 46 to 276 kg/ha for rice, 60 to 383 kg/ha for wheat and 37 to 360 kg/ha for maize. More than 70% fertilizer was absorbed by soil. (Program 948, CMOA)
According as a study by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), the PH meter of Chinese farming soil is trend to acidification 1.0 to 1.5 unite among 19 to 24a sample during 24 years. (Meng Hongqi, 2012) Fertilizer N deposition can acidify the soil and leaching the exchangeable base cations that field trend to barren.
|Table 1. Number of samples, fertilizer application rates for crops in China|
|Crop||Number of sample||Fertilizer Rate, kg/ha|
|Rice||396||46 to 276||25 to 235||19 to 155|
|Wheat||588||60 to 383||26 to 192||15 to 350|
|Maize||349||37 to 360||45 to 180||30 to 225|
|Table 2. Nitrogen fertiller recovery efficiency by crops from on-farm measurements. (Cassman et al., 2002)|
|Crop||Number of farms||Average N rate, kg/ha||N recovery, %||Region|
|Rice||179||117||31||Asia – farmer practice|
|179||112||40||Asia- field specific management|
|Wheat||23||145||18||India – unfavorable weather|
|21||123||49||India – favorable weather|
|Maize||56||103||37||North Central U.S.|
How to use
In many cases you can easy using water dilute PINEYE™ Emulsion and then mixing into pesticide formulas. We suggest you selecting bio-pesticide because bio-pesticide is natural prepared from organic monomers, especially which active ingredients were extracted from terpenes based. The based blending ratio is 1:100 with water, the application will be changed when the ratio changed.
|Table 3. The computing table for PINEYE™ Emulsion|
|FUNCTION||BLENDING RATIO, mg/ha||APPLICATION|
|Adhesion Release Control||300 to 400||Release Control|
|Adhesion Release Control (Strength)||400 to 600||Release Control|
|Wetting Dispersant||300 to 400||Dispersant Agent|
|Wetting Dispersant (Strength)||400 to 600||Dispersant Agent|
|Extended & Potentiator||600 to 1200||Potentiator|
If you plan to use PINEYE™ Emulsion as wetting dispersant at your citrus grange, and the water using rate is 400L/ha.
350 (Reference from Table.3) * 170 ( Size of sprinkler, that is 170L sprinkler in the case) / 400 ( water using rate per ha) = 148.75ml
If you want to use emulsion as potentiator in same hypothetical condition.
600 (Reference from Table.3) * 170 ( Size of sprinkler, that is 170L sprinkler in the case) / 400 ( water using rate per ha) = 255ml