The Biobased adjuvant
& PINEYE® Emulsion User Guide.
Release control will reduce the rate of diffusion. Using PINEYE® Emulsion for an hour before the rain comes, the product is forming an elasticity film to slow down rain penetrates through cuticles. This application will prevent farmers re-spray the pesticides twice time after a rainy day.
A study was reported that 45% of farmers would consider the safety interval, 38% of farmers may consider the intervals, but 17% of farmers would not consider this issue. More than 55% of farmers said that the higher toxicity the better efficacy. (Tong Xia, 2014)
Re-spray pesticides are the main way on residue issue, such as on a rainy day, the rains can clean away the pesticides from the surface of foliage if farmer spraying before rainy they will spray again when the sun comes out.
In the performance test, the deposit rate of PINEYE® Emulsion is 6.6623 mg/cm2. When farmers sprayed pesticides mix with PINEYE® Emulsion, the piney resin polymer can increase the extended area of pesticide on the surface. After spraying for an hour, polymer emulsion goes dryness and forming an elasticity film. The film wraps up liquid in the microcapsule and defence water cleans away the pesticide or other addition agents directly.
The key ingredient of PINEYE® Emulsion is a pinolene-based polymer, which is natural-friendly to crops, flowers, and fruits. Compared with other adjuvants, it shows 44.50 degrees of contact angle in the test, the value is better than the organic-based competing product, who shows 55.48 degrees of contact angle. The lower angle contact means the better wetting function if you use PINEYE® Emulsion as the dispersant agent.
DISCUSSION – SOIL ACIDIFICATION
According to a study by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), the PH meter of Chinese farming soil is a trend to acidification 1.0 to 1.5 unite among 19 to 24a sample during 24 years. (Meng Hongqi, 2012) Fertilizer N deposition can acidify the soil and leach the exchangeable base cations that field trend to barren.
Table 1. Number of samples, fertilizer application rates for crops in China
|Crop||Number of Sample||Fertilizer Rate, kg/ha|
|Rice||396||46 to 276||25 to 235||19 to 155|
|Wheat||588||60 to 383||26 to 192||15 to 350|
|Maize||349||37 to 360||45 to 180||30 to 225|
Table 2. Nitrogen fertiller recovery efficiency by crops from on-farm measurements. (Cassman et al., 2002)
|Crop||Number of Farms||Average N rate
|Rice||179||117||31||Asia – farmer practice|
|179||112||40||Asia- field specific management|
|Wheat||23||145||18||India – unfavorable weather|
|21||123||49||India – favorable weather|
|Maize||56||103||37||North Central U.S.|
HOW TO USE
The computing table for PINEYE® Emulsion
|Adhesion Release Control||300 to 400||Release Control|
|Adhesion Release Control (Strength)||400 to 600||Release Control|
|Wetting Dispersant||300 to 400||Dispersant Agent|
|Wetting Dispersant (Strength)||400 to 600||Dispersant Agent|
|Extended & Potentiator||600 to 1200||Potentiator|
CASE STUDY A
350 (Reference from Table.3) * 170 ( Size of sprinkler, that is 170L sprinkler in the case) / 400 ( water using rate per ha) = 148.75ml
CASE STUDY B
600 (Reference from Table.3) * 170 ( Size of sprinkler, that is 170L sprinkler in the case) / 400 ( water using rate per ha) = 255ml