PINEYE® Emulsion is a bio-based film forming adjuvant. The Antitranspiration property protected your crops, flowers, fruits from sun damage, and reduced stomatal opening status and water loss.

Impact of Climate Change on Crops

A research paper (Cuijing, 2011) stated that increasing temperatures can affect net crop revenue. When the temperature increased by 1°C, the total revenue of wheat in China decreased by 1.5% to 5.4% (You et al, 2005).

For example, the net revenue of this season’s rice crop in Huazhong decreased by 0.003% when the hours of sunlight increased by 10 hours per month. Meanwhile, the Northwest Area and Hua’nan saw an increase of 0.0030% to 0.0047%.

The net revenue of winter wheat increased by 0.03% in Hua’nan when the monthly hours of sunlight increased by 10 hours. However, this influence is relative, as the net revenue decreased by 0.09% in Huazhong and 0.03% in the Northwest Area.

Corn crops showed the same results. When the monthly hours of sunlight increased by 10 hours, the net revenue increased by 0.03% in Huazhong and the Northwest and Northeast areas while decreasing by 0.01% in Hua’nan.

Causes Factor to Crops
Wheat Rice Corn
Temperature -0.76 -2.61 3.14
Precipitation 0.66 -1.72 1.64
Sunlight -0.38 0.59 -0.60

Type of Plants Sunburn

Three types of sunburn have been identified in apples (Schrader et al, 2011). Sunburn Necrosis is solely caused by high fruit surface temperature and appears as a necrotic spot on the sun-exposed part of fruit while on the tree. ( Graeme Thomson, 2014 )

Sunburn Browning is caused by joint exposure to high fruit surface temperatures (46°C to 49°C, depending on the cultivar) and ultraviolet-B, but does not result in cell death.

Photo-oxidative Sunburn requires visible light and affects shaded apples that are suddenly exposed to solar radiation. Initially affected areas of the skin appear bleached and later become necrotic.

Sunburn on Your Crops, Flowers and Fruits

Sun damage will cause the sunburn, sunburn browning and necrotic.
Farmers lose money due to hot weather every year. In South Africa, 20% of Golden Delicious Apple crops and 40% of Granny Smith Apple crops are damaged by browning or necrosis on their surface and are therefore not exported or sold (Engela Duvenage, 2014).

In China, in Hangzhou for example, the tea, hickory nut and lotus yields were significantly lower than last year, due to high temperatures and major storms (Xu Wenwen, 2014). When the temperature is over 35°C, young tea bushes will start to burn.

North America and Latin America have not escaped from the effects of the sun, and 40% of apple crops, including Fuji, Braeburn and Cripps Pink, have been lost due to sunburn. In Chile, farmers lose about 13.5% of their crops, or US$100 million, every year (Dr.Jose Antonio Yuri).

UV (ultraviolet) radiation is responsible for the damage.


Yellow Emulsion

PINEYE® Emulsion  (the right sample) appears lightly yellow before mix with water or fungicides. It is the nonionic type organic adjuvant.

Easy Mixing with Water

PINEYE® Emulsion soluble in water without the stir. It appears white colour after the liquid is blended.

Film Forming Performance

PINEYE® Emulsion has the film-forming property, it will form an elastic coating on the surface of foliage. The ingredients of key phase are extracted from plants, has friendly bioactive and help fungicides access the hairy blade and waxy blade of foliage surface.

The Antitranspirant Ability

A plants sunguard test at noon @26°C on Jun.6, 2016. Two samples (the left and middle one) were treated with antitranspirant liquid and a leaf (the right one) without adjuvant. They were sprayed and placed for 6 hours and then moved into the room for 15 hours. The foliage treated with adjuvant is green and fresh after picked for 21 hours. PINEYE® Emulsion reduces the transpiration property of plants and locks the water.

Defense the Sunburn

For 3 hours placed under the sunlight directly in the afternoon on Jun.7, 2016. The foliage samples were hurt by sunlight. The right leaf sample without adjuvant showed a large area wilting. The middle one treated by PINEYE® Emulsion withered by sunlight at the smaller area. Compared with the left one treated by the competitor. It showed a tangible result.


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